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Fluid mechanics & hydraulics lab

Fluid mechanics & hydraulics lab:

Cavitation Apparatus

Description:
The apparatus has been designed to demonstrate the phenomena of Cavitation. Pressure tapings at appropriate position are provided. This test section is having one control valve at upstream side to regulate the water flow rate. The present set-up consists of a test section made of Acrylic having conversion and diversion section. The unit is self-contained close circuit type with sump tank, measuring tank and centrifugal pump. Two pressure gauges are connected to these taping which gives the pressure readout at the time of flow passing through this test section. Flow through test section can be regulated with the help provided by-pass and control valve.
Experimentation: To observe the phenomena of cavitation. To compare the theoretical and actual pressures at cavitation condition.

Centrifugal Pump Demostration

DESCRIPTION:
This accessory comprises a variable speed pump assembly and independent discharge manifold interconnected by flexible tubing with quick release connectors. This auxiliary pump is intended to be used in conjunction with the basic Hydraulics Bench. The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump, with which it is intended to be used. The pump speed is varied by an inverter drive. The motor speed, output voltage and motor current can be monitored on the inverter display. A compound pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump inlet and a pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump outlet. An independent discharge manifold incorporates a pressure gauge and flow control valve prior to a discharge pipe with diffuser.

Discharge over notches

Description:
The setup consists of a channel having sufficient length and width in which water is supplied from the bottom.
A pointer gauge with Vernier scale is fitted to measure the height of fluid in the flow channel.
Set of three notches, i.e. rectangular notch, 60° V notch & 45° V notch is provided along with the set-up.
Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc.
Arrangement for fixing interchangeable notches is made.
Required Notch is fitted at one end of this channel.
The flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stopwatch.
Flow control valve and bypass valve are fitted in the water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates.

Discharge through Orificemeter

DESCRIPTION :
The apparatus consists of a pipe line contains one orifice meter. Orifice meter is made from clear acrylic. The pressure tapings from the Orifice meter is taken to differential manometer to measure pressure difference. A valve is provided at the downstream side of Orifice meter. The flow can be regulated by this valve. Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. Flow control valve and by-pass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.
EXPERIMENTATION: To determine co-efficient of discharge of Orifice meter.
Technical Requirements :
Electricity supply: Single Phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 5-15 amp combined socket with earth connection.
Earth voltage should be less than 5 volts.
Water Supply (Initial Fill).
Floor Drain.
Floor Area Required: 1.5 m x 0.75 m.

Discharge through Venturimeter & Orificemeter

Description:
The apparatus consists of two pipelines emerging out from a common manifold.
The pressure tapings from the Venturimeter and orifice meter are taken to the differential manometer to measure pressure difference.
The flow can also be regulated by these valves.
Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc.
One pipeline contains a Venturimeter and other contains an Orifice.
The Venturi meter and Orificemeter are connected in parallel and any one of them can be put in operation by operating valves provided at the downstream.
Flow control valve and by-pass valve are fitted in the water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates.
The flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stopwatch.
Experimentation:
To determine the coefficient of discharge through Venturimeter and Orifice meter.
To demonstrate the use of Venturimeter & Orificemeter as flow meters.
Utilities Required:
Electricity supply: Single Phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 5-15 amp combined socket with earth connection.
Floor Drain.
Earth voltage should be less than 5 volts.
Water Supply (Initial Fill).
Floor Area Required: 1.5 x 0.75 m.

Flow through orifice & mouthpiece

Specifications:
Pump: Self priming, Monobloc Centrifugal Pump, Max. Flow 30 LPM, Max. Head 20 m, 230 V AC
Sump Tank: 100 Liters, made in PVC
Piping: PVC Piping with valves
Digital Stop Watch
Measuring Tank: 32 Liters, Made in PVC, with level indicator
Constant Head Tank: Made in FRP / M. S. Tank lined with FRP, Size in mm 200 (L) x 200 (W) x 700 (H)
X – Y arrangement
Set of orifice: 6 mm, 8 mm Diameter
Set of mouthpiece: Convergent, Divergent Mouthpiece
Frame: Made of M.S. Square Tubes & Sheets, Welded & Powder coated
Experimental Capabilities:
Determination of discharge coefficients.
Calibration of Orifice meter & Mouthpiece.

Forced vortex apparatus

Description:
The experimental set up consists of a circular transparent cylindrical tank in which plate is rotated with the help of a variable speed motor so that the cylinder rotates about its vertical axis with the help of a V belt and the forced vortex is formed.
Both axes contain graduations so that exact position of the probe is known.
The experimental procedure involves measurement of the resulting free surface that represents the variation of the sum of the pressure head and datum head.
An upper probe can be transversed horizontally & vertically across the full diameter of the vessel so that water surface profile can be measured.
An arrangement is provided to drain the vessel.
Experimentation:
To plot the surface profile of a forced vortex by measurement of the surface profile coordinates.
Utilities Required:
Electricity supply: Single Phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 5-15 amp combined socket with earth connection.
Earth voltage should be less than 5 volts.
Floor Area Required: 1 m x 1 m.
Water Supply (Initial fill).

Francis Turbine Test Rig

Technical Description:
• Francis Turbine is a reaction turbine, which was developed by an English born American Engineer Sir J. B. Francis.
• The water enters the turbine through the outer periphery of the runner in the radial direction and leaves the runner in an axial direction and hence it is called a mixed flow turbine.
• As the water flows to the runner, a part of pressure energy goes on changing into kinetic energy.
• Thus the water through the runner is under pressure.
• The runner is completely enclosed in an air tight casing and the casing & runner is always full of water.
• The present set-up consists of a runner. The water is fed to the turbine by means of Centrifugal Pump, radially to the runner.
• The runner is directly mounted on one end of a central SS shaft and another end is connected to a brake arrangement.
• The circular window of the turbine casing is provided with a transparent acrylic sheet for observation of flow on to the runner.
• This runner assembly is supported by thick cast iron pedestal.The load is applied to the turbine with the help of brake arrangement so that the efficiency of the turbine can be calculated.
• A draught tube is fitted on the outlet of the turbine. The set-up is complete with guide mechanism. Pressure and Vacuum gauges are fitted at the inlet and outlet of the turbine to measure the total supply head on the turbine.
Learning Objectives/Experiments:
• To study the operation of a Francis Turbine.
• To determine the Output Power of Francis Turbine.
• To determine the Turbine Efficiency
Required for Operation: • Water Supply and Drain. • Water Circulation: Centrifugal Pump, Standard Make, Capacity 5 HP Three Phase. • Discharge Measurement: Pitot Tube with Manometer • The whole set-up is ingeniously designed and schematically arranged on a powder-coated rigid structure

Hydraulic Bench

DESCRIPTION :
The present set-up is a self-contained, water re-circulating unit provided with a top tray and a sump tank. Various hydraulics experiments can be conducted on this set-up. A FHP Centrifugal Pump is fitted for water circulation. Flow control valve and bypass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch. Water collected on the top tray from experimental set-up, drains and return to sump tank.
EXPERIMENTATION:
Various experiments can be carried out with common basic table, with separate experimental set-ups (supplied at extra cost), which can be connected to hydraulic bench with flexible pipe.
SPECIFICATIONS:
Electricity supply: Single Phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 5-15 amp combined socket with earth connection.
Earth voltage should be less than 5 volts.
Water Supply (Initial Fill).
Floor Drain.
Floor Area: 1.5 x 1.5 m

Impact of jet on vanes

The setup is designed to study the forced developed by a jet of water on different surfaces and to compare it with momentum theory.
The visible test section housed one nozzle fitted in the vertically upward direction to target the jet of water opposite an interchangeable test surface (either flat plate or a hemispherical cup) which in term is connected to a spring-loaded stem.
Set up consists of visible test enclosure, supply tank, measuring tank and pump for closed loop water circulation.
The flow rate of water is measured using measuring tank and stopwatch provided.
The lift of stem and weight added to the pan on other side gives the calculation of corresponding force.
Experiments:
To study the force developed by the impact of jet on different surfaces.
Utilities Required:
Electric supply 0.5 kW, 220V AC, Single Phase.
Floor Area with Drain facility.
Water supply Tap water connection ” BSP Distilled water @ 60 liters (optional).

Kaplan Turbine Test Rig

Technical Description:
Kaplan Turbine is an axial flow reaction turbine named in honour of Dr B. Kaplan, a German Engineer.This turbine is suitable for the low head. The power produced by a turbine is proportional to QH. As the head (H) decreases the discharge (Q) must increase to produce the same power.The present set-up consists of a scroll casing housing a runner.Water enters the turbine through the stationary guide vanes and passes through the runner axially. The runner has a hub and airfoil vanes, which are mounted on it.The water is fed to the turbine by means of Centrifugal Pump.The runner is directly mounted on one end of a central shaft and another end is connected to a brake arrangement. A transparent hollow cylinder made of acrylic is fitted in between the draught tube and the casing for observation of flow on to the airfoil vanes. This runner assembly is supported by thick cast iron pedestal. The load is applied to the turbine with the help of drum brake arrangement so that the efficiency of the turbine can be calculated.The set-up is supplied with the control panel. Pressure and Vacuum gauges are fitted at the inlet and outlet of the turbine to measure the total supply head on the turbine.
Learning Objectives/Experiments:
• To study the operation of Kaplan turbine
• To determine the Output Power of Kaplan Turbine
• To determine the turbine efficiency pressure Measurement: Pressure Gauge & Vacuum Gauge
• Piping & Fittings: Pipes & fittings with flow control valves of suitable size
• The whole set-up is ingeniously designed and schematically arranged on a powder-coated rigid structure

Pelton Turbine Demonstration

The equipment is designed to study the characteristics of Pelton Turbine. It consists of a turbine unit which is installed on Hydraulic Bench for water supply. An acrylic window is provided to have a look of runner. Water enters to the turbine from nozzle and strikes through the buckets. Mechanical dynamometer (Rope Brake Type) helps to calculate the output power of the turbine. Pressure gauge is fitted on inlet of the turbine to measure the pressure head. The speed of the turbine can be measured with the help of Techometer (optional). The system is supplied with quick and easy coupling arrangement to connect with Hydraulic Bench.

Reynolds Apparatus

The apparatus consists of a glass tube with one end having bell mouth entrance; connected to a constant head water tank, at the other end a valve is provided to vary the flow rate. The tank is of sufficient capacity to store water. A capillary tube is introduced centrally in the bell mouth for feeding dye from a small container placed at the top of tank, through polythene tubing. By varying the rate of flow, the Reynold’s number is changed. This also changes the type of flow. Visual observation of dye (Thread) will indicate the type of flow, which can be confirmed from the Reynold’s number computed. Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. Flow control valve and by-pass valve are fitted in water line.

Submersible Pump Test Rig

Features:
• The present Submersible Pump Test Rig is a self-contained unit operated on closed circuit basis containing a sump tank. The set-up consists of a Submersible Pump, which is mounted horizontally with sump tank. The flow of fluid is measured by using the measuring tank and stop watch.
Learning Objectives/Experiments:
• To determine total head, pump output, overall efficiency and pump efficiency of the submersible pump.
• To plot Graph Head vs Discharge Pump efficiency vs Discharge Pump HP vs Discharge.
• The whole set-up is ingeniously designed and schematically arranged on a powder-coated rigid structure

Losses due to pipe fittings

Description:
The set up consists of a ½” bend and elbow, a sudden expansion & sudden contraction fitting from 15mm to 25mm, ball valve, and gate valve.
A differential manometer fitted in the line gives pressure loss of individual fittings.
Pressure tapings are provided at inlet and outlet of these fittings under test.
Flow control valve and by-pass valve are fitted in the water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates.
The flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stopwatch.
Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc.
Experimentation:
To measure the loss coefficient for the pipe fittings.
To determine loss of head in the fittings at various water flow rates.