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Heat and mass transfer lab

Heat and mass transfer lab:

Dropwise-Filmwise Condensation Apparatus

Condensation is a phase change heat transfer process occurring in many industrial applications, such as in steam power plants, refrigeration plants etc. Thus this is one of the important heat transfer process present in mechanical and chemical engineering application. The condensation of Vapour on a surface is of two types: 1. Drop wise Condensation. 2. Film wise Condensation. This set up is designed for finding heat transfer co-efficient of two types of condensation and for visualization of these processes. It consists of a vertical frame. Condensation tubes are fitted inside compact glass cylinder. Steam generator is fitted at the backside of the cylinder. Steam comes directly from generator to cylinder. Two valves are fitted to control flow rate of water in individual tubes. Digital Temperature Indicator monitors temperatures. Pressure gauge and Rotameter can observe steam pressure and cold, water flow rates respectively. A Digital temperature Controller is provided for controlling the temperature of Steam. Water level indicator is provided to safeguard the heater. Condensate is measured by measuring cylinder.
Experiments
• To study the Film wise & Drop wise condensation of steam on a vertical surface
• Visualization of condensation process in drop wise as well as film wise
Utilities Required
• Water supply 5 lit/min (approx.)
• Electricity Supply: 1Phase. 220 V AC. 1.5 Kw
• Table for set-up support

Emmissivity Measurement Apparatus

The present Set-up is designed to measure the emissivity of test plate. The test plate comprises of a mica heater sandwiched between two circular plates. Black plate is identical with test plate, but its surface is blackened. As all the physical properties, dimension and temperature are equal; heat losses from both plates will be same except radiation loss. Hence the input difference will be due to difference in emissivity. Both plates are supported on individual brackets in a wooden enclosure with one side glass to ensure steady atmospheric conditions. Temperature Sensors are provided to measure the temperature of each plate and surrounding. Supply is given to heaters through separate variacs so that temperatures of both can be kept equal and is measured with Digital Voltmeter and Digital Ammeter.
Experiments
• Determining the Emissivity of a test plate.
• Study the variation of emissivity of test plate with respect to absolute temperature.
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: 1Phase, 220 VAC, 4 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Finned Tube Heat Exhangers

Finned Tube Heat Exchanger Heat exchangers are widely used in various industries. Finned tube Heat Exchanger is a Tube-in-tube type heat exchanger. The inner tube is of carper tube with fins on the outside surface. Hot water flows through inner tube and cold fluid flows over the inner tube in outer tube. The flow rate of hot & cold fluid is measured with the help of measuring cylinder &stopwatch. Inlet and outlet temperatures of fluids are measured with the help of digital temperature indicators. A magnetic drive pump is used to circulate the hot water from a re-cycled type water tank, which is fitted with heaters and Digital Temperature Controller. Experiments To calculate the LMTD To find Heat transfer rate To find out overall heat transfer co-efficient. Utilities Required Water supply 10 lit/min (approx.)

Heat Pipe Demonstrator

It is a super-conducting device and involves the transfer of heat by boiling and condensation of a fluid and hence transfer of heat takes place under nearly isothermal condition. In this apparatus the comparison of heat pipe with the copper pipe as good conductor of heat and with the stainless steel pipe as same material of construction is made. It consists of three identical cylindrical conductors In respect of geometry. One end of these is heated electrically while there are small capacity tanks acting as heat sinks at the other end. The unit consists of a heat pipe a copper pipe and a stainless steel pipe. Temperature sensors are embedded along the length to measure the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate is noted in terms of the temperature rise in the heat sink tanks.
The performance of the heat pipe as a super-conducting device can be studied well in terms of the temperature distribution along the length at a given instant and can be compared with other two members. Nearly isothermal temperature distribution and fast rise of temperature in heat sink tank reveals the heat pipe superiority over the conventional conductors
Experiments
• To demonstrate the super thermal conductivity of Heat Pipe and to compare its working with best conductor i.e. Copper pipe & Stainless steel pipe as same material of construction.
• To plot the temperature v/s time response of three pipes
• To plot the temperature distribution along the length of three pipes
Utilities Required • Electricity Supply: 1Phase, 220 V AC, 2 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Heat Transfer from a pin fin

The setup is designed to study the heat transfer in a pin fin. It consists of pin type fin fitted in duct. A fan is provided on one side of duct to conduct experiments under forced draft conditions. Airflow rates can be varied with the help of damper provided in the duct. A heater heats one end of fin and heat flows to another end. Heat input to the heater is given through Variac. Digital Temperature Indicator measures temperature distribution along the fin.
Experiments
• To study temperature distribution along the length of fin in both Free & forced convection
• Comparison of theoretical temperature distribution with experimentally obtained distribution
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: 1 Phase, 220 V AC, 5 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Heat Transfer in agitated vessel

In most industrial processes including reactors, heat is to be added or extracted to control the process. The addition and removal of heat is done by passing steam in jacket fitted to the outside of the vessel or passing cold. Water in helical coil inside the vessel. For effective heat transfer and even distribution of heat, the liquid inside is continuously agitated. The present set-up offers us. A comparative study of Jacket & Helical coil, which can be operated simultaneously. It is a stainless steel jacketed vessel inside which, a helical coil of copper is fitted. A variable speed stirrer is fitted in vessel. The system is such designed that either steam or water is allowed to enter inside anyone of the jacket and helical coil by an arrangement of control valves. Variation in temperature of inside water is measured and is noted. Set-up is fitted with steam traps for condensate collection.
Flow rate of water can be controlled and measured using valve and Rotameter. Temperature of inlet and outlet of both hot & cold fluids are measured by temperature sensors.
Experiments
• To determine the overall heat transfer co-efficient for various degree of agitation
• To make a comparative study of Heat Transfer through Jacket & Coil in an agitated vessel
Utilities Required
• Water supply 20 lit/min (approx.) and Drain.
• Electricity Supply: 1 Phase, 220 V AC, 5.kW.
• Floor area of 1.5m x 1.5m

Heat Transfer in forced convection

The apparatus consists of Blower unit fitted with the test pipe. Nichrome wire heater surrounds the test section. Four Temperature Sensors are embedded on the test section, two placed in the air stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the inlet and outlet air temperature. Test pipe is connected to the delivery side of the blower along with the Orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Constant heat flux is given to pipe by an electric heater through a variac and measured by Digital Voltmeter and Digital Ammeter.
Experiments
• To determine average surface heat transfer coefficient for a pipe losing heat by forced convection.
• Comparison of heat transfer coefficient for different airflow rates and heat flow rates.
• To plot surface temperature distribution along the length of pipe
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: 1 Phase, 220 V AC, 10Amp.
• Floor area of 1.2mx 0.5m

Heat Transfer in natural convection

The setup consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surrounding. One side of the duct is fitted with a transparent good quality Acrylic window for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube that in turns heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The temperature of the vertical tube is measure by Temperature Sensors and displayed by a Digital Temperature Indicator with multi-channel switch. The heat input to the heater is measured by a Digital Ammeter and a Digital Voltmeter and is varied by a variac. The tube surface is polished to minimize the radiation losses.
Experiment
• To determine average heat transfer coefficient
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: I Phase, 220 V AC, 2 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Heat Transfer through composite walls

The setup consists of a heater sandwiched between two sets of slabs. Three types of slabs are provided on either sides of heater, which forms a composite structure. A small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A variac is provided for varying the input to the heater and Digital Voltmeter and Digital Ammeter display the heat input. Heat produced by heater flows axially on both the sides. Temperature Sensors are embedded between interfaces of slabs to determine the temperature gradient. The experiment can be conducted at various values of input and calculation can be made accordingly.
Experiments
• To determine total thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of composite wall
• To plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: 1Phase, 220 V AC, 2 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Heat Transfer through lagged pipe

The setup is designed and fabricated to study lagging phenomenon in case of pipes. It consists of three concentric pipes of small thickness as compared to diameter and are arranged concentrically, and closed with the help of two discs. Two different insulating materials fill the annuli between the cylinders compactly. Temperature Sensors are fitted to measure the temperature of pipe walls for radial outward heat flow measurement. Inside the inner pipe, a Nichrome wire heater is placed axially. Heat input to the heater is given through a variac and measured by Digital Voltmeter and Digital Ammeter. By varying the heat-input rates, wide range of experiments can be performed.
Experiments
• To estimate the actual rate of heat transfer through the composite cylinders from the measured interface temperature of the known value of thermal conductivity of the two insulating materials.
• To determine the effective thermal conductivity of the composite cylinders
• To determine the theoretical temperature profile within the composite cylinders
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: 1Phase, 220 V AC, 2 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Shell & Tube Heat Exhangers

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger are popular in industries because they occupy less space and offer reasonable temperature drop. The apparatus consists of fabricated SS shell, inside which copper tubes with baffles on outer side are fitted. This is two-pass heat exchanger so that hot water passes to one end of shell through the tubes and returns to another end through remaining tubes. The cold water is admitted at the one end of shell, which passes over the hot-water tubes. Valves are provided to control the flow rates of hot and cold water. Flow rates of hot and cold water are measured using Rotameters. A magnetic drive pump is used to circulate the hot water from a re-cycled type water tank, which is fitted with heaters and Digital Temperature Controller.
Experiments
• The main object of the experimental setup is to study the following at various flow rates:
o LMTD. .
o Heat transfer rate
o Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient
Utilities Required
• Water supply 20 lit/min (approx.) and drain
• Electricity Supply: I Phase, 220 V AC, 4 kW
• Floor area of 1.5m x 0.75 m

Stefan Boltzman Apparatus

The apparatus is designed to determine, the Stefan Boltzmann constant. The apparatus consists of a hemisphere fixed to a Bakelite plate, the outer surface of which forms the jacket to heat it. Hot water to heat the hemisphere is obtained form a hot water tank, which is fixed above the hemisphere. The copper test disc is introduced at the center of hemisphere. The temperatures of hemisphere and test disc are measured with the help of temperature sensors.
Experiments
• Determination of Stefan Boltzmann constant and study the effect of hemisphere temperature on it.
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: 1Phase, 220 VAC, 4 Amp. .
• Table for set-up support.

Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Powder

Insulating Powder Apparatus is designed to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating powder. The Apparatus consists of two thin-walled concentric copper spheres. Inner sphere houses Nichrome Wire heating coil. Insulating powder is filled between the spheres. Heat flows radially outwards. Temperature sensors at proper positions are fitted to measure surface temperatures of spheres. Heat input to the heater is given through a variac and measured by Digital Voltmeter & Digital Ammeter. By varying the heat input rates, wide range of experiments can be performed .
Experiments
• Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder
• Comparison of thermal Conductivity of insulating powder at different temperatures
Utilities Required
• Electricity Supply: 1Phase, 220 V AC, 2 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

The present apparatus is designed to determine thermal conductivities of different liquids. The apparatus consists of a heater. The heater heats a thin layer of liquid. A cooling plate removes heat through liquid layer, ensuring unidirectional heat flow. Temperature is measured across the liquid layer and complete assembly is properly insulated. A proper arrangement for changing the liquids is provided. The whole assembly is kept in chamber.
Experiments
• Determination of Thermal conductivity of different liquids and to make a comparative study
• Study of variation of thermal conductivity of different liquids with temperature
Utilities Required
• Water supply 5 lit/min (approx.)
• Drain.
• Electricity Supply: I Phase, 220 V AC, 2 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Thermal Conductivity of Metal Rod

The experimental set up consists of metal bar, one end of which is heated by an electric heater while the other end of the bar projects inside the cooling water jacket. A cylindrical shell filled with the asbestos insulating powder surrounds the middle portion of the bar. The temperature of the bar is measured at different sections. Heat Input to the heater is given through variac and measured by Digital Voltmeter & Digital Ammeter. By varying the heat input rates, wide range of experiments can be performed. Water under constant head condition is circulated through the jacket and its flow rate and temperature rise is noted.
Experiments
• To plot the temperature distribution along the length of Bar
• To determine the thermal conductivity of given bar at various temperatures
Utilities Required
• Water supply 3 lit/min (approx.)
• Drain
• Electricity Supply: 1 Phase, 220 V AC 2 Amp.
• Table for set-up support

Adsorption in packed bed

Utilities Required: Water Supply & Drain
Electricity Supply: I Phase, 220VAC, 1.5kW
Instruments, Laboratory Glassware and Chemicals required for analysis as per the system adopted
Specifications:
Product
Adsorption Setup
Reactor Column
Material Borosil Glass, different diameter with different height of packing (3 Nos.)
Feed Tank
Material Stainless Steel, Capacity 20 Ltrs., feed lines, drain valve etc. (1Nos.)
Receiving Tank
Material Stainless Steel, Capacity 20 Ltrs (1Nos.)

Fluidized bed Dryer

We are leading manufacturer and exporter of a wide range of Fluidized Bed Dryer. The Salt is fluidized, each particle meets the hot air, discharges moisture, gets dry and at the same time travels forward without any mechanical push. We have proven-technology for designing dryers of any capacity. In this state, the solids behave like a free flowing boiling liquid. Clients can avail this products as per there requirements.
Scope of Experimentations:
To study fluidization characteristics
To study relationship between velocity of fluid and pressure drop per unit length
Utilities Required:
Electricity : 500 watts, 220 V, 1 Phase
Floor Area : 0.75 m x 0.75 m

Liquid Extraction in packed bed

The setup is designed to demonstrate principles of liquid-liquid extraction and mass transfer operation in a packed column.The set up consists of a glass column, packing, feed tanks, air regulator with pressure gauge, receiving tanks and piping. Rotameter are provided for flow measurement,Experiments,Determination of overall height of a transfer unit and overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient.
Features:
Stainless Steel tanks and wetted parts
Special arrangement for changing height of interface zone
Continuous operation
Superb Painted structure
Simple to operate & maintain
Compact & stand alone set up
Utilities Required:
Electric supply Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single phase electric supply with proper earthing. 5A, three pin socket with switch for Compressor Chemicals for trial as per your choice Compressed Air supply: Clean, oil and moisture free air, pressure 2 Bar. Water Supply & Drain as required Print/Save Catalogue

Natural Draft tray dryer

The set-up is designed to demonstrate and stimulate the moisture removal by heat under natural draft action created by hot air stream.
The set-up consists of an insulated double wall chamber. Inside the chamber a tray is attached directly to an electronic weighing balance, which is fitted on top outside the chamber. Material for drying is placed in the tray and regular loss of weight is monitored. Air works as the drying agent by natural action removes the moisture from the tray by passing towards the top openings. A digital temperature controller is used to control and measure the temperature of air stream l
Experiments
Determination of rate of drying of wet sawdust under different conditions of temperature
Features:
Superb Painted structure
Simple to operate & maintain
Compact & stand alone set up
Utilities Required
Electric supply Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single phase electric supply with proper earthing. 5A, three pin socket with switch for weighing scale, 15A, three pin socket with switch for heater

Rotary Dryer

Owing to the vast experience and knowledge of this field, we have been able to offer premium quality Rotary Dryer to our esteemed customers. Manufactured in compliance with the industry laid standards, this apparatus is commonly used for various drying purposes. The offered dryers are known for their hassle free operations and easy maintenance.
Specifications:
Electric supply Provide: 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single phase electric supply with proper earthing. 5A, three pin socket with switch for weighing scale, 15A, three pin socket with switch for heater Material Saw dust @ 1Kg. Granular and free flowing solid of size I - 2 mm

Sieve Plate Distillation Column

The setup is designed to demonstrate principles of distillation in a Sieve Plate Column. The column is made of Stainless Steel material with seven sieve trays. An electrically heated re-boiler is installed at the bottom of the column. The bottom product is collected in the tank. The vapors form the top of column are condensed in the shell and tube type condenser by circulating cooling water supplied by laboratory overhead tank. The condensate is divided into reflux and distillate by automatic reflux divider and R/D Ratio can be varied. Reflux is fed back to the column and distillate is received in a receiving tank. The complete column is insulated for minimizing the heat loss. Instrumentation is done for pressure & temp. Measurement wherever is necessary
Experiments
To study the Sieve Plate Distillation Column
Features
Stainless Steel tanks and wetted parts
Superb Painted structure
Simple to operate & maintain
Compact & stand alone set up
Utilities Required
Water Supply 2 LPM at 5 m head

Solid Liquid Extraction packed bed type

With firm commitment to quality, we are engaged in offering excellent quality, Solid Liquid Extraction (Packed Bed Type) . These are designed under the strict command of our quality analyzers keeping in mind the industry guidelines. Post production, these products are stringently tested on varied grounds, to ensure their compliance with international quality standards.
Features:
Durability
High tensile strength
Resistance to corrosion